Write an essay 1. Discuss the debate between ‘Europe without Frontiers’ and ‘Fortress Europe’. In light of a ‘new security’ global world (e.g., September 11th, terrorism, COVID pandemic, refugee crises) which direction do you think the EU will take vis-à-vis migration/refugee movements, What are the constraints and opportunities for supranational cooperation on these issues? Identify two EU member-states’ positions related to immigration/refugee crises, and consider whether/how the EU helps or impedes their ability to manage the issue.2. Considering the institutional developments of the EU since its beginning (e.g., direct EP elections, etc. Lisbon Treaty, enlargement, deepening, etc.), which direction do you think the EU will take vis-a- vis the long battle between supranationalism and inter-governmentalism in the EU? Of all the EU’s successes and failures, what are its two biggest accomplishments and two biggest shortfalls and why? Be specific in giving some examples. Do the recent world developments and crises confirm the EU’s fate as a blessing OR a ‘fair-weather friend’? Explain.3. According to our guest lecturer, the former MEP from the UK, there are many possible implications of BREXIT for the UK domestically. Identify at least two possible future ramifications for the UK. Discuss the lessons for other EU member-states today, and argue your position (e.g., pro/anti; optimistic/pessimistic), based on evidence.4. ‘What is Europe’s telephone number?’ Explain this classic quote, and consider how the answer to this has changed or not overtime. Identify some of the institutional reforms related to security, foreign policy, and defense since the Maastricht Treaty, and assess what direction you think the EU is taking. Since the Lisbon Treaty, does Europe speak with one ‘voice’ in world affairs today? 5. The principle behind Monnet’s functional approach to European integration was based on the assumption that if we federalize the wallets of Europeans, their hearts and minds will follow. Identify at least 2 political impediments challenging European integration. In light of developments, was Monnet correct that the ‘silent revolution in men’s minds’ would lead Europeans to go beyond their mere economic interests? Given the EU’s track record thus far on ‘four freedoms’ of integration, do you think that the ‘nation-state’ as we know it is dead, or is Euroscepticism the attitude of the future? Explain your position, and give examples.