1) The Earth has season primarily because, during summer in the Northern Hemisphere A) The tilt of the Earth means the Northern Hemisphere gets more sunlight per area, making it summer in the North and winter in the South B) The tilt of the Earth means the Northern Hemisphere is closer to the Sun, making it summer in the North and winter in the South C) The Earth is closer to the Sun, making it summer in both the North and South at the same time. D) The Sun is brighter due to the Solar Cycle, making it summer in both the North and South at the same time. E) The Moon reflects more light onto the Northern Hemisphere, making it summer on the North and winter in the South. 2) Pluto has season primarily because, during summer in the Northern Hemisphere on Pluto A) the tilt of Pluto means the Northern Hemisphere gets more sunlight per area, making it summer in the North and winter in the South B) the tilt of Pluto means the Northern Hemisphere is closer to the Sun, making it summer in the North and winter in the South C) the eccentric orbit of Pluto means it is closer to the Sun, making it summer in both the North and South at the same time. D) the Sun is brighter due to the Solar Cycle, making it summer in both the North and South at the same time. E) Charon reflects more light onto the Northern Hemisphere, making it summer on the North and winter in the South. 3) On the Winter solstice in Turlock, the Sun will set A) due East B) due West C) the farthest south of any day of the year D) the farthest north of any day of the year 4) With his early telescopes, Galileo was able to prove definitively that Venus orbits the Sun. What was he able to observe to prove Venus orbits the Sun? A) Changing shadows of Venus’s craters B) Venus’s phases C) Stellar parallax D) The motion of Venus’s moons E) Retrograde motion 5) Gravitational waves have now been observed by LIGO. Do these observations confirm the Theory of General Relativity? A) No, because General Relativity does not predict gravitational waves B) No, because no theory can be proven. But it does support General Relativity by confirming one of its predictions C) No, because gravitational waves prove we live in a giant simulation controlled by aliens. D) Yes, because Newtonian Gravity does not predict gravitational waves E) Yes, because no other theory could possibly include gravitational waves 6) If a star is approaching us at 3,000 km/sec, then all the light it emits will be A) redshifted by 1%. B) blueshifted by 1%. C) redshifted out of the visible into the infrared. D) blueshifted out of the visible spectrum into the ultraviolet. E) not affected, as c is constant regardless of the direction of motion. 7) Which of the following telescope proposals would definitely not get funded: A) A radio telescope in Antarctica to study star formation B) An infra-red telescope in space to study exoplanets C) An X-ray telescope in Chile to study black holes D) An optical in Colorado to study asteroids 8) In our solar system, Jovian planets are only found far from the Sun beyond the ice line. But in other solar systems, Jovian planets are found much closer to the star where the temperature is higher. Why do we think these planets exist where they are? A) Other stars must have been much less luminous early in their lives relative to the Sun. B) Ice must melt at a higher temperature around other stars. C) These planets must have formed farther out and migrated inward around other stars. D) Ices must be much more abundant around other stars. E) Hydrogen and Helium must be much more abundant around other stars. 9) Neptune and Uranus are referred to as “ice giants” because A) They are so cold that water freezes solid on their surfaces B) Their moons are mostly captured comets C) Their composition is the same as Jupiter and Saturn, but they are cold enough to have methane ice clouds in their atmosphere D) Most of their mass consists of water, ammonia and methane E) Their blue color makes them look like ice balls. 10) Which of the stars labeled A-E in Figure 1 is the hottest? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E 11) Which of the stars labeled A-E in Figure 1 has the largest radius? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E ✪ A ✪ B ✪ C ✪ D ✪ E 12) Assuming all the stars in Figure 1 formed at the same time, which of the stars labeled A-E started out with the highest mass? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E 13) In an accretion disk around a black hole, where will the orbital velocity be higher? A) Closer to the black hole B) Farther from the black hole C) The orbital velocity is the same at all distances D) There is no way to tell 14) At what Moon phase would you expect to find extremely high and low tides? A) new moon B) full moon C) both new and full moons D) first and third quarter moons E) Moon phases do not impact the tides. 15) What is true of the Moon′s orbital and rotational periods? A) The Moon does not rotate. B) The orbital period is longer than the rotational period. C) The orbital and rotational periods are equal. D) The rotational period varies with the Moon′s phase. E) The orbital period is greatest at full moon. 16) Without the greenhouse effect operating in our atmosphere, A) Earth would have an average temperature below freezing. B) the ice in the polar regions would have melted long ago. C) the ozone layer would not be weakening. D) the Earth would have become much more like Venus long ago. 17) The average rate of erosion on the Moon is far less than on Earth because A) the crust of the Moon is much denser than the Earth′s crust. B) the Moon is much younger than the Earth. C) the Moon lacks wind, water, and an atmosphere. D) the Moon′s magnetic field protects it from the solar wind better than ours does. 18) The lunar mare are found A) uniformly all over the Moon. B) mainly on the near side. C) mainly on the far side. D) only in the dark areas of the lunar poles, where water is not boiled away. 19) Plate tectonics can operate on Earth because the Earth’s mantle is A) Conductive B) Convective C) Solid D) Hotter than the core E) Denser than the crust 20) Which of the following processes would shape the surface of the Moon but NOT the Earth? A) Plate tectonics B) Volcanoes C) Flooding D) Glaciers E) Micro-meteorite impacts 21) Earth′s magnetic field A) prevents charged particles in the solar wind from stripping our atmosphere. B) is a remnant of the solar nebula′s magnetic field. C) is weakening the Van Allen radiation belts. D) is the force behind plate tectonics. E) is similar in strength to the Moon’s magnetic field. 22) Which of the following is NOT explained by the Giant Impact Theory for the formation of the Moon? A) The lack of volatile elements on the Moon B) The similar composition of the Moon and Earth’s mantel C) The similar isotopic ratios on the Moon and Earth D) The similar age of the Earth and Moon E) The difference in appearance between the near and far side of the Moon 23) Venus is farther from the Sun than Mercury, but has a much higher surface temperature. This is primarily because A) Venus is darker in color and absorbs more sunlight B) Venus is primarily heated by volcanic activity C) The atmosphere of Venus helps heat the surface by the greenhouse effect D) Venus rotates quickly which heats the surface more evenly 24) What is the primary reason we believe Venus does not have a magnetic field? A) Venus is smaller than Earth, so the core has mostly solidified. B) Venus rotates much more slowly that Earth. C) Venus is not differentiated and does not have a metallic core. D) Venus is so hot that convection does not occur. 25) The largest difference between Mars′ northern and southern hemispheres is that A) the southern appears older, with more impact craters. B) the northern has all the outflows and must have been much hotter. C) the northern is higher overall, despite some high volcanoes in the south. D) the southern has a polar cap, but ice never forms in the north. E) the southern is much darker, with large mare-like basaltic lava flows. 26) Presently on Mars, water is not found A) in the polar ice caps B) as permafrost under ground C) as water vapor in the atmosphere D) as occasional, short-lived outflows of liquid on the surface E) as stable pools of liquid water on the surface 27) Why is the presence of hematite on Mars significant? A) Hematite contains iron B) Hematite forms deep under ground C) Hematite forms in liquid water D) Hematite cannot form in the presence of water 28) One billion years from now, condition on Earth will most resemble current condition on A) Mars, because the Earth will lose its magnetic field and the atmosphere will be stripped by the solar wind. B) Mars, because the Sun will grow dimmer and most of the Earth’s atmosphere will freeze and condense. C) Venus, because volcanoes are constantly making the Earth’s atmosphere thicker. D) Venus, because the Sun will grow brighter, leading to a runaway greenhouse effect as the oceans evaporate. E) Jupiter, because the Earth is constantly accreting Helium and Hydrogen from space. 29) Based on Figure 2, above, if Jupiter were moved to the orbit of Mercury (400 K), what gases would Jupiter retain in its atmosphere? A) Like Mercury, no gases would be retained. B) Only Hydrogen would be retained. C) Helium and all heavier gases would be retained, but not Hydrogen. D) Hydrogen, Helium and all heavier gases would be retained (the atmosphere would not change composition). E) Oxygen, Nitrogen, and heavier gases would be retained, but nothing lighter. 30) Based on Figure 2, above, if Mars were moved to the orbit of Neptune (70 K), what gases would it be possible for Mars to hold onto in its atmosphere? A) Hydrogen, Helium and all heavier gases could be retained. B) Helium and all heavier gases, but not Hydrogen. C) Only Hydrogen would be retained. D) Water Vapor, Ammonia, Methane and heavier gases, but not Helium of Hydrogen E) Only Carbon Dioxide and heavier gases could be retained. 31) Based on Figure 2, above, Venus should be able to retain water vapor in its atmosphere, but very little water vapor is seen. Why? A) Venus never had any water. B) Venus was much hotter early in the history of the solar system and the water escaped. C) Water is broken down by UV light into Hydrogen and Oxygen in the upper atmosphere, and Venus could not retain the Hydrogen. D) The water on Venus is frozen in the polar ice caps and permafrost. 32) Adams and Leverrier predicted the position of ________, which Galle confirmed. A) Jupiter B) Saturn C) Uranus D) Neptune E) Pluto 33) Essentially, the Great Red Spot is A) Neptune′s largest atmospheric feature. B) a large cyclonic storm (hurricane) on Jupiter. C) always located within 10 degrees of Jupiter′s north pole. D) composed primarily of iron oxide. 34) Jupiter and Saturn are composed primarily of A) Magnetic fields B) Hydrogen and Helium C) Ices (water, methane and ammonia) D) Rock E) Iron 35) Unlike the Earth, the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn’s are produced by A) Convection in the upper atmosphere B) Convection in a salt water ocean C) Convection in a metallic hydrogen mantle D) Convection in a liquid iron core E) A solid bar magnet inside each planet. 36) The only spacecraft to get close-up images of Uranus and Neptune was A) Voyager 2 B) Cassini C) Galileo D) Curiosity E) New Horizons 37) What is thought to be the cause of Io′s volcanoes? A) tidal heating B) radioactive decay in Io′s interior C) Jupiter′s magnetosphere and its charged particles D) energy emitted by Jupiter E) solar radiation focused by Jupiter′s gravity 38) Which of the following is true of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto? A) All three are in resonant orbits with each other B) All three have intrinsic magnetic fields generated by their metallic cores C) All three have induced magnetic fields that change as Jupiter rotates D) All three have relatively young surfaces with evidence for resurfacing 39) The liquid water ocean inside Callisto remains liquid primarily because of A) solar heating B) pressure turning ice into a liquid C) tidal heating D) radioactive heating E) residual gravitational heating from formation 40) Why would Ganymede be more likely to host life than Callisto? A) Ganymede has more water B) Ganymede is bigger C) Ganymede has more internal heating D) Ganymede is closer to Jupiter 41) On Titan, the lakes are made mostly of liquid A) water. B) methane. C) metallic hydrogen. D) carbon dioxide. E) nitrogen. 42) Voyager 1 was unable to image Titan′s surface because A) of ″smog″ (haze) in Titan′s atmosphere. B) of Titan′s high reflectivity. C) the moon was in shadow during the mission. D) the cameras were damaged by Saturn′s magnetic field. E) volcanic activity spewed sulfur clouds, obscuring the surface. 43) Why would Enceladus be an easy place to try to detect for life? A) It is the biggest moon in the solar system. B) It is the only moon with liquid water in its interior. C) It has jets of water shooting into space. D) Its surface is covered with organic materials. 44) Inside the Roche Limit A) large moons are torn apart. B) is where large moons form. C) ring systems cannot exist. D) there is a gap in a planet′s magnetic field. E) hydrogen can only exist in its liquid metallic form. 45) Structure in Saturn’s rings, such as gaps, narrow rings, spokes, and ripples, are caused by A) collisions between ring particles B) different composition of ring particles in different parts of the ring C) gravitational interactions with moons D) perturbations to Saturn’s orbit due to interactions with Jupiter Short Answer Questions: 46) (10 points) Which other body in our solar system do you think is most like the Earth? Give three (3) reasons why. (Note that there is no one correct answer. Pick a planet, moon, etc. and give three reasons to justify your answer.) 47) (10 points) Exoplanet systems can look very different from our solar system. They can include hot Jupiters, mini-Neptunes, super-Earth, water worlds, and lava worlds. Pick two (2) of these types of exoplanets not found in our solar system and describe, their a) size, b) location in their star system, and c) expected composition. (For example, Terrestrial Planets, which are found in our solar system, are about the size of Earth, found inside the ice line, and are made mostly of rock.) 48) (10 points) There are several different ways to make heavy elements we have discussed, such as Core-Collapse Supernova, Type-1a supernova, and kilonova. Pick one and briefly describe what this event is, what type of elements are made, and why are those elements made in this event? 49) (5 points) We have seen many situations where convection is important. Pick one (1) situation in which convection is important. Describe where convection is happening and what affect convection has on the system. In other words, what does convection cause or create in that situation? 50) (5 points) An X-ray photon has an energy of 2,000 eV. What is the wavelength of this X-ray photon in nanometers (nm)? 51) (5 points) What is something in you learned about in this course that you found to be counter-intuitive – something that behaves the opposite way of what you expected? Explain how it works and why it has the behavior it does. (For example: I always find that blue stars being hot and red stars being cold is counterintuitive. But this happens because blue photons have more energy than red photons, so it takes something hot to make more blue light. *Use a different answer than this.) 52) (5 points EXTRA CREDIT) Astronomers have proposed building a radio telescope on the far side of the Moon to observe in the AM radio band. What would be the advantages of building a radio telescope there?