1.) What did the Oldowan Tool do for early hominids? How do scientists know these stones were actually tools? What is significant about a long infancy and childhood for hominids? Is language uniquely human or is it part of the continuum of becoming human? 2.) Why did leaving Africa have to occur after early hominids had tool-making skills and could reliably add meat to their diets rather than before? What role did fire play in human migration? Why is a mother-child bond so critical to hominids? What occurred during the Lower Paleolithic that separates it from the Upper Paleolithic period? 3.) What can we learn about the Upper Paleolithic from a study of its art? What makes Neanderthals unique in the evolution of modern man? Why are there no Neanderthals left today? Why is there so little consensus about the emergence of modern man? What evidence signaled the end of the Upper Paleolithic? 4.) What does human behavior have to do with the spread of disease? What is the relationship between length of gestation, time spent in infancy and childhood, and the increased life span (particularly for reproductive women) of human primates compared to that of nonhuman primates? What is the connection between the abundance of food generated by industrialized agriculture and the ongoing issues of nutritional deficiencies and famine? 5.) What is a biological profile and how is it helpful to a forensic anthropologist? What can be learned from completing an individual′s biological profile? How is ancestry more useful to a scientist than race?